2022 Annual Climate Trends and Impacts Summary for the Great Lakes Basin

Coordinated by a partnership between climate services organizations in the U.S. and Canada, this product provides a synthesis report summarizing the previous years’ climate trends, events, new research, assessments, and related activities in the Great Lakes Region. This product is a contribution to the U.S.-Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, through Annex 9 on Climate Change Impacts, and to the national climate assessment processes in the U.S. and Canada. It should be cited as: Environment and Climate Change Canada and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2022 Annual Climate Trends and Impacts Summary for the Great Lakes Basin. 2023.

2022 Document
English Version (PDF)
















During the 2022 reporting period, air temperatures were near normal and precipitation varied widely across the Great Lakes basin. Heavy springtime  precipitation in the northwest was contrasted with fall drought conditions in the southeast. Both contributed to rapid seasonal shifts in Lake Superior and Ontario water levels, respectively. Water levels remained predominantly above average, with the exceptions of the beginning of 2022 for Lake Superior and  the latter half of 2022 for Lake Ontario. At 56.1% areal coverage, Great Lakes maximum ice cover in 2022 was above the long-term average.


Contributing Partners

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
Midwestern Regional Climate Center
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Northeast Regional Climate Center
University of Illinois



GLISA. Great Lakes Retrospectives and Prospectives (2022). https://glisa.umich.edu/retrospectives-prospectives/

Notaro, M., J. Jorns, and L. Briley, 2022: Representation of Lake–Atmosphere Interactions and Lake-Effect Snowfall in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin among HighResMIP Global Climate Models. J. Atmos. Sci., 79, 1325–1347, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-21-0249.1.

Seglenieks, F., & Temgoua, A. (2022). Future water levels of the Great Lakes under 1.5 °C to 3 °C warmer climates. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 48(4), 865–875. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2022.05.012

Shrestha, N. K., Seglenieks, F., Temgoua, A. G. T., & Dehghan, A. (2022). The Impacts of Climate Change on Land Hydroclimatology of the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin. Frontiers in Water, 4. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frwa.2022.801134

Xu, X., Frey, S. K., & Ma, D. (2022). Hydrological performance of ERA5 and merra-2 precipitation products over the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 39, 100982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100982

VanDeWeghe, A., Lin, V., Jayaram, J., & Gronewold, A. D.  (2022). Changes in Large Lake Water Level Dynamics in Response to Climate Change. Frontiers in Water, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/frwa.2022.805143

Kayastha, M. B., Ye, X., Huang, C., & Xue, P. (2022). Future rise of the Great Lakes water levels under climate change, Journal of Hydrology, 612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128205.

GLISA. Future Climate Scenarios for Great Lakes Cities (2022). https://glisa.umich.edu/future-climate-scenarios-for-great-lakes-cities/

Krantzberg, G., Chen, B., Sun, R., Li, W., Cheng, K. (2022). Use of a Climate Change Scenario Analysis Tool to Anticipate Various Futures Associated with Extreme Urban Flooding. Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences Research, 4(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4006041

Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.; Deloria, C.; Shannon, P.D.; Cooper, M.; Eash, J.; Haugland, J.; Johnson, S.E.; Johnson, S.M.; Magee, M.R..; Mayne, G.; Nelson, C.; Nigg, C.; Sidie-Slettedahl, A.; Brandt, L., Handler, S.; Janowiak, M.; Butler-Leopold, P.; Ontl, T.; and Swanston, C. (2022). Strategies for Adapting Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems to Climate Change. White Paper. Houghton, MI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Northern Forests Climate Hub. 61 p. https://doi.org/10.32747/2022.7816961.ch

Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. Climate Projections for Niagara Region (2022). https://niagararegion.ca/official-plan/pdf/climate-projections.pdf